La militancia del ajuste en Venezuela

El cronista viajó a Venezuela y retrató la realidad del país caribeño desde diferentes ángulos. Hoy, unió al madurismo y al macrismo a partir de la militancia por la austeridad que ambos gobiernos utilizaron para minimizar la crisis. Las últimas entregas de Cangrejo en Retirada.

Todo proceso político tiene un relato, es decir, una forma de revisar el pasado que coincida con la narración presente para que se puedan catapultar promesas a futuro. Algunos relatos son más grandilocuentes que otros, pero cuando hablamos de ajuste, la política comunicacional debe ser decididamente épica si se quiere aplicar de forma prolongada. 

Y en estos términos, lo que fue el gobierno de Cambiemos en Argentina y la etapa del “madurismo” en Venezuela se parecen. Si bien son procesos absolutamente diferentes, cuyas realidades se rozan ahora más que nunca por la coincidencia de la devaluación de la moneda nacional y la precarización de la vida cotidiana (aunque con características diferentes), el macrismo en esta gestión se unió con el gobierno bolivariano en un punto: la militancia del ajuste, es decir, la voluntad de instalar -frente a medidas y situaciones económicas antipáticas- que el “placer” material es artificial y que la realización de uno, o sea la “felicidad”, se puede alcanzar mediante otros caminos, por ejemplo, mediante el camino de la austeridad. 

Si se compara con los primeros meses del año, en Venezuela la espuma de la turbulencia política ha bajado al frustrarse las manifestaciones convocadas por Juan Guaidó y la amenaza de intervención militar por parte de Estados Unidos. De modo tal que se empiezan a vislumbrar los escombros de la vida cotidiana cada vez más asfixiante, y con ellos, la reflexión retrospectiva. En este sentido, ¿qué reflexiona la militancia? ¿Qué proponen como modelo de país, qué tipo de cambio cultural pretenden? 

Cuando hablamos de ajuste, la política comunicacional debe ser decididamente épica si se quiere aplicar de forma prolongada”

Se está hablando de pasar de la mentalidad de un “niño rico” a la de un niño “modesto” o a la de un “niño consciente”, podría decirse. Consciente de que los recursos se pueden agotar, y modesto a la hora de consumir. Consciente de que el despilfarro está mal, y que la conciencia del ahorro está bien. 

Por ser un país dependiente de la renta petrolera donde el dinero ingresaba con facilidad y sobre todo en cantidad, Venezuela se ha caracterizado por el despilfarro. Si se dañaba la pieza de un “carro” no se intentaba reparar, directamente se compraba un “carro” nuevo. Si se veía mal el televisor, que no se diga más: se adquiría otro. Si tocaba una semana o un mes de intenso calor, y uno quería dejar el agua de la ducha y el aire acondicionado encendidos, no se dudaba en hacerlo; entre tantas otras cosas. 

En este aspecto, la característica de estos últimos 20 años no fue solo el “despilfarro” de la clase alta y la clase media, sino también de las clases populares, que consumieron por primera vez con libertad. 

Entonces, dentro de la militancia chavista hay gente que ahora plantea la siguiente pregunta filosófica: “¿Qué es calidad de vida?”, “¿Calidad de vida es tener el mejor auto, la mejor marca de ropa o la mejor marca de manteca?” “¿O acaso calidad de vida es verse realizado a través del propio trabajo, es decir, producir lo que uno consume?”.

La militancia del ajuste, es decir, la voluntad de instalar que la “felicidad” se puede alcanzar mediante el camino de la austeridad” 

En consecuencia, uno formula la siguiente pregunta: “¿Pero eso no sería trasladar la explotación de otro a la explotación por uno mismo, es decir, la autoexplotación en un contexto de precarización?

Y se responde: “No, porque de esa manera usted estaría realizándose”.

– ¿Usted me quiere decir que antes se vivía una ficción?

– Exacto.

– ¿Y que ahora se vive la realidad?

– ¡Claro!

En Venezuela se está militando el ajuste. Se está cambiando de mentalidad por obligación. Los que permanezcan tendrán que adaptarse a este cambio, o perecer. Un dirigente importante del gobierno, luego de reflexionar mucho sobre el “bloqueo económico” y sobre el “asedio internacional”, me dijo: “Parece que esta crisis nos las envió Chávez desde el cielo para corregirnos”… 

Sólo un Dios muy perverso haría una cosa así; pero, más allá de que dicha frase haya sido en broma, el concepto es más o menos el que se maneja y el que ha utilizado Cambiemos, por ejemplo, para justificar la quita de subsidios a la energía: “Antes vivíamos una ficción, y algún día nos iba a tocar vivir la realidad”.

La característica de estos últimos 20 años no fue solo el “despilfarro” de la clase alta y la clase media, sino también de las clases populares”

Entonces, desde el Estado se fomenta que la gente comience a reciclar, aprenda a reparar artefactos, se busquen marcas alternativas, en la gastronomía (rubro fundamental en estos momentos por la escasez y por los altos precios de los alimentos) se inició un proceso de creatividad, de búsqueda de comidas ancestrales y de ciertos derivados; la luz se cuida, el agua se cuida, la paciencia se macera, la siembra se fomenta, se volvió a la cultura del fogón, y sobre todo se busca la “vuelta al campo”, para generar conciencia de productividad y porque allí, “la gente se arregla con poco”. 

En un país fuertemente desigual, se está trabajando -en las escuelas, en los barrios, en las instituciones públicas- en hacer un culto a la austeridad y al empoderamiento alimenticio. Se quiere cambiar el razonamiento de que el Estado “todo lo puede financiar”. Por ejemplo, un programa del ministerio de Cultura consiste en enseñar a niños a que construyan sus propios instrumentos; y esta lógica se expande a todas las áreas.

Si Macri gobernó diciendo que “todo lo que tenían era una ficción”, ahora en Venezuela se está recurriendo al mismo método, no para despertar de ese supuesto “sueño”, sino para no caer definitivamente en la pesadilla de la que, sin embargo, muchos viven. La diferencia, claro está, es que con esta política el macrismo en Argentina se retiró del poder por el voto de la sociedad, mientras que el chavismo o madurismo da la impresión que tiene un porvenir gobernando casi sin oposición de peso.

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