La oposición en Venezuela

El cronista analiza el estrecho vínculo entre la oposición y el oficialismo, y describe tres tipos de opositores venezolanos.

La imagen positiva del oficialismo se encuentra en el piso. El problema es que la oposición en la práctica muchas veces termina siendo funcional al gobierno. No se sabe si es por torpeza o por intencionalidad. Por ejemplo, muchos afirman que oficialismo y oposición mantienen negocios en conjunto, y que ni a uno ni a otro le conviene dejar de ocupar el rol que ocupan. En Maracay, sin ir más lejos, hay un terreno, montado por los propios militares, donde funciona un restorán de lujo en cuya pared principal aparece pintado el rostro enorme de Chávez. Los militantes chavistas de base lo llaman, con ironía y con bronca, “La sede del hombre nuevo”; y afirman que también es el lugar de encuentro entre militares y opositores para concretar negocios. 

¿Verdaderamente quiere la oposición tomar las riendas de un país que se encuentra en lo económico hundido, en lo tecnológico obsoleto y en lo político enmarañado por las innumerables estructuras organizativas chavistas que cumplen una función en la dinámica territorial tanto de una comunidad como de un Estado y de todo el país? Los superficiales dicen que “la solución es que se vaya Maduro”, pero quienes se detienen un poco a reflexionar, llegan a la conclusión que nada cambiaría, que Maduro es apenas la cara visible, porque hay una estructura incontrolable, independiente y dispersa entre organizaciones sociales, colectivos, colectivos armados, consejos comunales, comunas, militares que ocupan áreas estratégicas, empresarios involucrados, opositores involucrados, entre otros, que ingresaron a un sistema del que no pueden -aunque quisieran- salir. 

Según mi experiencia y lo que he visto, personalmente creo que el gobierno está más fortalecido que antes. Ahora que pasó la efervescencia de la amenaza de intervención militar extranjera, parece que el gobierno políticamente se recompuso. No sólo eso, sino que se unió más y se depuró. Fíjese qué contradicción: a medida que aumenta el proceso de descomposición social interno, el gobierno se fortalece más. Tiene el aspecto de una falange bien apretada. 

Los militantes chavistas de base lo llaman, con ironía y con bronca, “La sede del hombre nuevo”; y afirman que también es el lugar de encuentro entre militares y opositores para concretar negocios”

Da la impresión que tiene todos los frentes cubiertos.

Primero: la migración de más de 4 millones de personas, que comenzó en 2014, estuvo compuesta más que nada por jóvenes de entre 20 y 35 años (edad de mayor intervención política) que se supone, son opositores. En paralelo, por la amenaza de invasión, se inició un proceso de militarización de la sociedad. Van más de 3 millones de personas que están alistadas a las milicias y que reciben entrenamiento militar, y esperan llegar antes de año a los 4 millones; en una sociedad de 30 millones de habitantes, saque usted la cuenta. Es decir, la misma cantidad -supuestamente opositora- que se fue del país, es la que hoy tiene a su disposición las armas y el adoctrinamiento necesario para defender la “revolución”. Sin contar las Fuerzas de Seguridad (que en total son medio millón) y los colectivos armados.

Segundo: la oposición prácticamente no existe. Más allá de todos los líderes que están inhabilitados o exiliados, me tocó asistir a una marcha convocada por la oposición, a raíz de la muerte o el asesinato del militar Rafael Acosta Arévalo, y lo más llamativo fue la poca convocatoria que tuvo. No hay un líder que aglutine masas; mientras que Guaidó está cada día más desgastado luego del intento de golpe fallido de la primera mitad del año. La gente común opositora con la que uno habla detesta a Maduro pero está más desilusionada con Guaidó. Según mi experiencia, consideran tanto al oficialismo como a la oposición parte de un mismo problema, de un círculo o un huracán vicioso. Además, la idea de solicitar una invasión norteamericana a su propio país, produjo el descontento de un gran sector de la sociedad. Por otro lado, herramientas de presión, como por ejemplo son los sindicatos en Argentina, en Venezuela carecen de poder real o son aliados del gobierno.

Y tercero: hay que presentarle atención a las nuevas generaciones. Me refiero a los niños de entre 8 y 12 años. Ellos no vivieron la época del goce consumista, no están acostumbrados al despilfarro y al “aburguesamiento”. Todo lo contrario, se están curtiendo en medio de una crisis sin precedentes, durante un proceso de resistencia en el que se valora el pan de cada día y el agua para tomar y bañarse. En simultáneo, reciben una rigurosa educación sobre el empoderamiento, sobre la patria, sobre la revolución y el antiimperialismo. He hablado con niños de primaria que me han instruido sobre Bolívar, sobre el Che, y sobre la coyuntura política, los recursos naturales de su país y la amenaza de invasión de los norteamericanos. En conclusión: son niños concientizandos que resistirán el deterioro de la calidad de vida de hoy, y que, en algún momento, cuando sean jóvenes con derechos cívicos, empezarán a ver a su país caminar por la senda del crecimiento, ya que una vez que se está en el fondo, sólo resta subir. 

Por estas razones, y también por la cantidad de personas que dependen del Estado para subsistir, creo, y esto es una opinión personal, que los próximos escenarios en Venezuela se edificarán únicamente por el oficialismo, para bien o para mal. De modo tal que cualquier argumento desestabilizador o conspirador serán meras estrategias para anular el debate o para justificar la implementación de una política concreta. Mientras tanto, igualmente, el bloqueo económico por parte de los Estados Unidos sigue vigente.

Consideran tanto al oficialismo como a la oposición parte de un mismo problema, de un círculo o un huracán vicioso”

El opositor.

El opositor tradicional en Venezuela habla así: “Estamos viviendo en una dictadura. Esto es un régimen dictatorial y totalitario. Maduro es un títere sanguinario manejado por Cuba y los rusos. La única opción es que intervengan los norteamericanos para sacar al usurpador y que este país comience a andar a partir de los créditos de los organismos internacionales. Son unos corruptos, desde el primero al último; que fomentaron la vagancia y no el trabajo. Es un virus que se tiene que extirpar de raíz para que no se siga reproduciendo”.

Un opositor más moderado, o alguien que en algún momento fue chavista, habla así: “Este gobierno lo que hizo fue tomar los petrodólares y repartirlo entre las masas a través de educación, vivienda, etcétera. Ahora se acabaron los petrodólares. No invirtieron, pusieron a gente no capacitada a manejar las distintas áreas, y ahora lo pagamos todos. Los militares son el principal problema, ya que diseñaron un sistema de corrupción impenetrable. Además, a medida que el país se fue empobreciendo, el gobierno se fue poniendo más autoritario. Ahora quieren salvarse con Rusia y China, pero ellos también están interesados por nuestros recursos naturales”.  

Un opositor, ciudadano común y corriente, trabajador no politizado en el sentido partidista, habla así: “La mayor parte de mi familia está afuera del país. Vivo gracias a los dólares que me mandan. Antes me hacían ir obligatoriamente a las marchas y ahora me echaron del trabajo y ni me pagaron indemnización. Los precios están muy elevados y no sé qué hacer. Espero que esto cambie de la manera que sea lo más pronto posible”. 

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